Note:  Do not rely on this information. It is very old.

Umber

Umber, a pigment which consists of a clay coloured by oxides of iron and manganese. The raw material is "burnt," by which means water is expelled, and the pigment takes a redder colour. It is then powdered, and may be used for the preparation of either water-colours or oil-colours. The best varieties are obtained chiefly from Cyprus, and from their colour and permanence are valuable pigments.