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Ulema

Ulema (The Learned), a class of theologians and expounders of Mohammedan law, to be found in most great Mohammedan cities of the East, notably at Constantinople, Mecca, and Cairo. So far as Turkey is concerned, the Sheik-el-Islam is at their head, and they are divided into (1) Mollahs, (2) Muftis, (3) Imaums, (4) Softas, or students. Their decrees are called "fetvas," and they have great influence upon Mohammedan life, chiefly of a conservative nature.

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