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Macdonald, Etienne Jacques

Macdonald, Etienne Jacques, Marshal (1765-1840), was born in France, of a Scotch family which had settled there. He fought for the Revolution, and distinguished himself at Jemappes; but his most famous exploits were those undertaken on behalf of Napoleon. He defeated Suwaroff at Trebbia (1799), and in 1801 marched across the Splugen Pass. He was present at Wagram, Lutzen, and Bautzen, but was defeated at the Katzbach. He was made a peer by the Bourbons. From 1816 he attended the discussions in the Chamber of Peers.